Robben Island hosts about 132 bird species. These include seabirds, waterbirds and terrestrial birds. Humans have introduced a few to the Island by humans, such as the Chukar Partridge and Guinea Fowl.
The environment provides a sheltered and safe haven for a large variety of bird species, some of which are endangered. Many of the birds use the Island for breeding and roosting. Some birds from the mainland such as Crowned Cormorant and Black Crowned Night Herons breed on the Island in large colonies.
The African Penguin (formerly known as the Jackass Penguin) is a species that was abundant in the 17th century but was brought to the brink of extinction in the 1800s by human activities. By 1983 the penguins were re-introduced and have since established a breeding population. They are a favourite attraction of visitors to the island.